The Beginner’s Guide to GPS
Land surveying is critical for the design and construction of various aspects like roads, buildings, and so on. Land surveys are done to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, and so much more.
All land surveying activities must be done accurately to achieve the best results. Surveyors should, thus, make use of certain equipment which may include:
GPS equipment- It uses satellites to conduct surveys by taking the variations in height between two points along with the distance and directions.
Tripod equipment- They are used to back other surveying instruments like theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. Tripod equipment must be firm when being utilized to get accurate results, thus, when they are moved they require being reset to conduct a fresh survey. Its accuracy is affected by water, thus the material used to make it should be chosen wisely.
Measurement equipment- A measuring wheel is the most commonly used. The wheel is rolled along the desired measurement and its revolution counted by an odometer which is usually attached to it.
Theodolites- They are used to realize horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They produce beams of light that are used to test elevation. They are different based on the various tasks necessary during construction. They can be manually operated or independent. Self-level lasers find their own levels independently, while manual lasers require being adjusted while in use.
Laser receivers- They are used together with laser levels to work on greater spaces that require being assessed. The laser receivers detect beams of light from the laser levels and adjust respectively until the desired level is achieved then make a sound. They make the use of laser levels outdoors and on very bright days bearable.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are used in the evaluation of slopes. Single grade lasers calculate gradients for single planes, while dual grade lasers determine the gradient of two planes at the same time.
Rotating and straight line lasers- Rotating lasers produce a beam of laser light from a beacon that rotates to assess a plane across 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are used to produce a cross or plumb line.
Pipe lasers- This type is used when new pipes, drains, or sewers are being installed. Pipe lasers are used to align pipes and grade them in line with each other, one after the other.
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